One of the greatest pianists of the 20th century, Vladimir Horowitz plays Frédéric Chopin’s Polonaise in A-Flat Major, Op. 53, (Polonaise héroïque, Heroic Polonaise; Polish: Heroiczny).

One of the greatest pianists of the 20th century, Vladimir Horowitz plays Frédéric Chopin’s Polonaise in A-Flat Major, Op. 53, (Polonaise héroïque, Heroic Polonaise; Polish: Heroiczny).

Frédéric Chopin’s Polonaise in A-Flat Major, Op. 53, the “Heroic Polonaise”

The Polonaise in A-flat major, Op. 53, commonly known as the “Heroic Polonaise,” was composed by Frédéric Chopin in 1842 and has since become one of his most celebrated works. This composition, written for solo piano, stands out in the romantic piano repertoire for its virtuosic demands and majestic character. Chopin dedicated this piece to his friend and supporter, the German banker Auguste Léo.

Chopin’s “Heroic Polonaise” requires exceptional technical skill and interpretative depth, making it a favorite among advanced pianists. It features numerous technical challenges, such as fast ascending chromatic fourths, rapid octave passages, and complex fingerings, which contribute to its reputation as a physically demanding piece. Notably, Chopin himself played it with more delicacy than many modern performers, according to his student Adolphe Gutmann.

The nickname “Heroic” is partly attributed to Chopin’s companion, George Sand, who linked the piece to the revolutionary spirit of the 1848 Revolutions in France. Sand was deeply engaged in political activism and saw in this polonaise the embodiment of the strength and vigor required for social and political change. She famously wrote to Chopin about the piece, highlighting its inspirational and forceful character, and suggesting it as a symbol of heroism.

Structurally, the “Heroic Polonaise” is intermediate between ternary and rondo forms, with a majestic tempo marked Alla polacca e maestoso. The piece begins with a grand introduction featuring fast ascending chromatic notes that immediately establish a heroic mood. The main theme, characterized by a dance-like rhythm in the tonic key of A-flat major, is punctuated by powerful, pounding octaves in the left hand and decorated with trills in the right hand.

The first interlude transitions through a series of chord progressions, leading back to the main polonaise theme. The second, more extended interlude (or trio section) starts with six loud arpeggio chords, then shifts to a softer, bass ostinato of descending octaves in the keys of E major and E-flat major. This section includes a march-like melody and a lyrical passage with harmonic modulations, showcasing Chopin’s compositional brilliance.

The final reprise of the main theme is louder and more dramatic, culminating in a coda that incorporates elements of the primary melody. This coda concludes the piece with a triumphant and forceful ending. Despite being written in 3/4 time, the “Heroic Polonaise” features many rhythmic nuances that create a sense of grandeur and complexity.

The autograph manuscript of the “Heroic Polonaise” is preserved in the Morgan Library & Museum, highlighting its significance in Chopin’s oeuvre and its enduring legacy in the classical music world. Pianist Arthur Rubinstein, who famously stated that this composition was closest to his heart, exemplifies the deep emotional connection and admiration that performers and listeners alike have for this masterpiece.


M. Özgür Nevres

Published by M. Özgür Nevres

I am Özgür Nevres, a software engineer, a former road racing cyclist, and also an amateur musician. I opened to share my favorite music. I also take care of stray cats & dogs. This website's all income goes directly to our furry friends. Please consider supporting me on Patreon, so I can help more animals!

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