Legendary Italian pianist Maurizio Pollini (5 January 1942 – 23 March 2024) plays Ludwig van Beethoven’s Piano Sonata No. 26 in E-flat major, Op. 81a, also known as the Les Adieux sonata.

Beethoven’s Piano Sonata No. 26 “Les Adieux”

Beethoven’s Piano Sonata No. 16 in G major, Op. 31, No. 1, is a work that showcases the composer’s evolution and experimentation with form and expression. Composed in 1801-1802, this sonata belongs to a set of three sonatas that Beethoven wrote during a particularly productive period in his career. The Op. 31 sonatas mark a departure from the traditional sonata forms that dominated his earlier works, reflecting his desire to innovate and challenge conventions.

The G major sonata is characterized by its playful and often unpredictable nature, filled with sudden shifts in dynamics and unexpected harmonic turns. Beethoven’s sense of humor and wit is evident throughout the piece, as he frequently defies the listener’s expectations with surprising twists and turns. This sonata is less stormy and dramatic compared to some of his other works, instead offering a more light-hearted and cheerful character.

Beethoven’s use of the piano in this sonata is both inventive and expressive. He explores a wide range of dynamics and articulations, creating a rich and varied soundscape. The technical demands of the piece, while not as formidable as in some of his later sonatas, still require a high level of precision and control from the performer.


With the start times in the video above:

  1. 00:26 – Das Lebewohl: Adagio – Allegro
  2. 07:17 – Abwesenheit: Andante espressivo
  3. 10:14 – Das Wiedersehen: Vivacissimamente

1. Das Lebewohl: Adagio – Allegro

The first movement of Beethoven’s Piano Sonata No. 26 is marked by profound emotional depth and complexity. This sonata, often referred to as “Les Adieux” (The Farewell Sonata), was composed during a particularly turbulent period in Beethoven’s life, reflecting personal sentiments tied to the departure of his patron and friend, Archduke Rudolph, due to the political upheavals of the Napoleonic Wars.

The movement opens with an Adagio section, which is deeply poignant and somber. The music here is rich with expressive markings that convey a sense of sorrow and longing. The key theme of “Lebewohl” (Farewell) is meticulously integrated into the musical structure. Beethoven not only inscribes the words above the score but also embeds the syllables into the notes themselves, creating a musical motif that clearly articulates the farewell sentiment. This motif is presented as a descending figure, symbolizing the physical act of departure.

As the Adagio unfolds, the melancholy atmosphere becomes increasingly palpable. Beethoven uses a variety of techniques to heighten the emotional impact, including dramatic pauses and dynamic contrasts. The music is introspective, drawing the listener into the emotional landscape of loss and separation. The use of diminished chords and chromaticism adds to the sense of unease and unresolved tension, mirroring the uncertainty and sadness of parting.

Transitioning to the Allegro section, the tempo picks up, introducing a more dynamic and urgent character. Despite the increased pace, the theme of farewell remains ever-present. The Allegro is built around the initial farewell motif, which is now developed and elaborated upon. Beethoven employs a wide range of compositional techniques, including counterpoint, imitation, and thematic transformation, to explore the full emotional and musical potential of the motif.

The Allegro is characterized by its dramatic and restless energy. The themes are more fragmented, reflecting the emotional turmoil of departure. There is a sense of forward motion, yet it is often interrupted by sudden shifts and surprising harmonic progressions, which serve to keep the listener engaged and on edge. Beethoven’s mastery of form is evident as he balances the structural demands of sonata form with the expressive needs of the narrative.

Throughout this movement, Beethoven’s innovative use of the piano is on full display. He exploits the instrument’s full range of dynamics and timbres, creating a rich and varied soundscape. The technical demands on the performer are considerable, requiring both virtuosic skill and deep emotional insight. The movement culminates in a powerful and emotionally charged conclusion, leaving the listener with a sense of unresolved tension and anticipation for what is to come.

2. Abwesenheit: Andante espressivo

The second movement, “Abwesenheit” (Absence), is marked Andante espressivo and serves as the emotional heart of the sonata. This movement contrasts sharply with the dramatic intensity of the first movement, offering a more reflective and introspective musical experience. The theme of absence is central here, capturing the quiet, contemplative moments of longing and yearning for the return of the departed friend.

The Andante espressivo opens with a simple yet hauntingly beautiful melody. This theme is imbued with a sense of nostalgia and wistfulness, embodying the essence of absence. Beethoven’s use of melody in this movement is particularly striking; the lines are lyrical and flowing, yet tinged with a subtle melancholy. The harmonic language is rich and varied, with frequent modulations and unexpected harmonic turns that add depth and complexity to the emotional landscape.

As the movement progresses, the theme is developed and elaborated upon. Beethoven introduces variations that explore different facets of the central theme, from tender and delicate passages to more intense and dramatic sections. The interplay between tension and resolution is masterfully handled, keeping the listener engaged and emotionally invested throughout. The use of counterpoint and polyphony adds an additional layer of complexity, showcasing Beethoven’s compositional skill.

The middle section of the movement introduces a contrasting theme that provides a moment of respite. This secondary theme is more hopeful and optimistic, suggesting a glimmer of hope amid the sorrow of absence. However, this hopeful interlude is short-lived, as the music gradually returns to the original theme, now even more poignant and expressive. The interplay between these themes creates a rich tapestry of emotions, reflecting the complex nature of longing and anticipation.

Beethoven’s use of dynamics in this movement is particularly noteworthy. The music ranges from soft, intimate passages to powerful, almost orchestral climaxes. These dynamic contrasts serve to heighten the emotional impact, drawing the listener deeper into the narrative. The use of rubato and subtle tempo changes adds to the expressive quality, allowing the performer to shape the music in a deeply personal and emotive way.

The movement concludes with a return to the opening theme, now transformed and enriched by the journey it has undertaken. The final measures are marked by a sense of quiet resignation, as the music fades into silence. This ending leaves the listener with a lingering sense of melancholy, perfectly setting the stage for the final movement.

3. Das Wiedersehen: Vivacissimamente

The third and final movement, “Das Wiedersehen” (The Return), is marked Vivacissimamente and brings the sonata to a joyful and exuberant conclusion. This movement is a celebration of reunion and the joy of returning, contrasting sharply with the somber and reflective mood of the previous movements. It captures the excitement and elation of seeing a loved one again after a long absence.

The Vivacissimamente marking indicates a very lively and energetic tempo, and Beethoven delivers on this promise with a movement that is full of vitality and rhythmic drive. The opening theme is bright and jubilant, characterized by rapid, cascading scales and playful, syncopated rhythms. This theme sets the tone for the entire movement, establishing a mood of unrestrained joy and celebration.

As the movement progresses, Beethoven introduces a series of contrasting themes and motifs, each one adding to the overall sense of excitement and anticipation. The development section is particularly dynamic, featuring a whirlwind of modulations and thematic transformations. Beethoven’s use of counterpoint and polyphony is once again evident, as he weaves together multiple lines of music to create a rich and complex texture.

The recapitulation brings back the opening theme, now even more vibrant and energetic. Beethoven’s mastery of form is evident as he seamlessly integrates the various themes and motifs into a cohesive whole. The coda, marked Presto, drives the movement to a thrilling and triumphant conclusion. The rapid scales and arpeggios, along with the powerful chords and dynamic contrasts, create a sense of exhilaration and unbounded joy.

Throughout this movement, Beethoven’s use of the piano is both innovative and virtuosic. The technical demands on the performer are considerable, requiring not only speed and agility but also a deep understanding of the music’s emotional content. The rapid passagework and intricate fingerings require precise control and dexterity, while the dynamic contrasts and expressive markings demand a high level of interpretative skill.

The movement’s energy and excitement are further enhanced by Beethoven’s use of rhythm and syncopation. The playful, offbeat rhythms create a sense of unpredictability and spontaneity, adding to the overall sense of joy and celebration. The music is constantly in motion, driving forward with an unstoppable momentum that carries the listener along on a wave of exuberance.


M. Özgür Nevres

Published by M. Özgür Nevres

I am Özgür Nevres, a software engineer, a former road racing cyclist, and also an amateur musician. I opened andantemoderato.com to share my favorite music. I also take care of stray cats & dogs. This website's all income goes directly to our furry friends. Please consider supporting me on Patreon, so I can help more animals!

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